Who Would End the Bankruptcy? Now our gigantic work begins. His political struggle had lasted 14 years.
Print this page Introduction The Highland Clearances is still a very emotive subject to many people, in many parts of the world, today. It consistently provokes people to take sides and has led to deep, and sometimes acrimonious academic debate.
Some historians try to give the topic an objectivity, by associating it with a process of economic and agricultural change which was widespread across Europe at the time. It is undoubtedly a part of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th century. And yet it Was the industrial revolution a sporting much more than that.
The Clearances undoubtedly stemmed in part from the attempt by the British establishment to destroy, once and for all, the archaic, militaristic Clan System, which had facilitated the Jacobite risings of the early part of the 18th century.
This approach, however, also over-simplifies the issues involved. People at the time, and since, have seen the Clearances as an act of greed and betrayal on the part of the ruling class in the Highlands: Undoubtedly this motive was present in some instances, with weak people taking advantage of even weaker ones under the guise of economic reform or social reorganisation.
The weather has also been blamed - a succession of bad harvests and famine demanding a drastic solution.
Rising population, putting pressure on land and jobs, also played a part, as did the persuasive, smooth-talking agents of ship-owners who ferried indentured servants to the rapidly expanding United States of America. Indeed, in some cases, the final decision to go was a voluntary one - a desire to seek something better across the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean.
All of these factors played a part in causing the Highland Clearances, and the results have had a lasting significance for the people of the Highlands, and indeed for many of those who left. In the space of less than half a century, the Highlands became one of the most sparsely populated areas in Europe.
But it was not only the people who disappeared. The settlement pattern, the homes of the people for a thousand years or more, has virtually vanished, becoming no more than an archaeological feature for those who stumble across the remnants.
Most countries in Europe can display examples of traditional peasant housing going back to the Middle Ages.
This is true of England and, to some extent, southern Scotland.
But when one comes to the Highlands there are very few buildings of this sort that date from before the early 19th century. The only way a 21st-century Highlander can experience something of how his or her ancestors lived years ago, is to visit the archaeological reconstruction of a Highland township or baile at the Highland Folk Museum in Newtonmore.
Before the Clearances, most Highland families lived in such townships, in a kind of collective, or joint-tenancy farm, housing perhaps a hundred or so people, who were often kinsfolk. The buildings were substantial, but used materials alien to us in the western world today.
The walls were of clay and wattle, or of thickly cut turf, with or without a leavening of rough stones, and the roofs were thatched in heather, broom, bracken, straw or rushes.
Once they were cleared, these structures quickly reverted to nature. And little or nothing was to replace them in the new economic order. In one glen near where I live, I can find traces of six or seven such townships, housing perhaps or more people.
View the landscape today, and you will see a couple of stone-built houses for the shepherds. They too are now abandoned, and the glen stands empty.
Top Highland wilderness Even the sheep, which replaced the people, have gone - to a large extent. The great sheep farms were designed to provide landowners with an economic miracle, providing meat for the great burgeoning cities of the south and wool to the factories, but they became unsustainable by the last quarter of the 19th century, undercut by cheaper, often better quality products from Australia and New Zealand.
And is it not ironic that these lands were so heavily settled by the very people cleared from the Highland glens?
The land was then given over to sporting estates to become grouse moors and deer forests, the playgrounds of the new industrial aristocracy.
In recent years, this use too has declined and large tracts of the Highlands are now designated National Nature Reserves, Sites of Special Scientific Interest, and, perhaps soon, National Parks. But not all of the people cleared from the townships were cleared from the Highlands. Many were resettled in new locations, on marginal land and on holdings too small to be viable economic farms.
These crofting townships are still a significant part of the cultural landscape today, but they were never meant to provide people with a living. In the economic theory of the day, powered by thinkers like Adam Smith, the remnant of the Highland population would learn to diversify.
They would become weavers, kelp workers burning seaweed used to make iodinecommercial fishermen, and so on. The croft would give them a measure of subsistence, while they transformed their lives. So new settlements grew up, like Bettyhill named after Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland, in whose name some of the most infamous clearances where people were literally burned out of their townships were carried outHelmsdale, Spinningdale and a host of others, which were the forerunner of new industrial estates.
The state too had a hand in this early attempt at resettlement and economic regeneration. The British Fisheries Board established a number of fishing stations, designed to create a new industrial base in the Highlands. Top Cultural decline The cultural changes in the landscape are easy to spot if you know where to look and what to look for.
It is perhaps more difficult to identify today with the tremendous change in the political culture.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Explain how the industrial revolution initially restricted opportunities for the lower class to take part in pre-industrial sports and pastimes.
For a specific sporting activity, explain one way in which opportunities for working class participation had increased by the end of the nineteenth century. Diving Scuba Sports Sporting Recreation International Country Inc.
Online Shop Water RSGI Goods. Watch video · The Industrial Revolution occurred when agrarian societies became more industrialized and urban. Learn where and when the Industrial Revolution started, and the .
To What Extent Did The Industrial Revolution Change Sports? The Upper Class was not affected by the caninariojana.com Middle class followed in the steps of the Upper Class and was not greatly affected. The Industrial Revolution had a great impact on the Working Class, due to the long working hours.
We invented the majority of the world's great sports. 19th century Britain was the cradle of a leisure revolution every bit as significant as the agricultural and industrial revolutions we launched in .