Throughout his life, Hawthorne was both fascinated and disturbed by his kinship with John Hathorne. Raised by a widowed mother, Hawthorne attended Bowdoin College in Maine, where he met two people who were to have great impact upon his life: Henry Wadsworth Long-fellow, who would later become a famous poet, and Franklin Pierce, who would later become president of the United States. After college Hawthorne tried his hand at writing, producing historical sketches and an anonymous novel, Fanshawe, that detailed his college days rather embarrassingly.
She attended Walden Schoola progressive private school on Manhattan's Upper West Sideplayed piano and pursued a career in modern dance during her graduate studies.
Gilligan received her B. Gilligan taught for two years at the University of Cambridge from — as the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions. Despite being Kohlberg's research assistant, Gilligan argued that Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development were male-oriented, which limited their ability to be generalized to females.
Gilligan thus proposed her theory of stages of female moral development based on her idea of moral voices. According to Gilligan, there are two kinds of moral voices: The masculine voice is "logical and individualistic",  meaning that the emphasis in moral decisions is protecting the rights The feminist scarlet letter people and making sure justice is upheld.
The feminine voice places more emphasis on protecting interpersonal relationships and taking care of other people. This voice focuses on the "care perspective,"  which means focusing on the needs of the individual in order to make an ethical decision.
For Gilligan, Kohlberg's stages of moral development were emphasizing the masculine voice, making it difficult to accurately gauge a woman's moral development because of this incongruity in voices. Gilligan argues that androgyny, or integrating the masculine and the feminine, is the best way to realize one's potential as a human.
Gilligan's stages of female moral development has been shown in business settings as an explanation to the different ways men and women handle ethical issues in the workplace as well. In contrast to Kohlberg, who claimed that girls did not, and therefore neither women, in general develop their moral abilities to the highest levels, Gilligan argued that women approached ethical problems differently than men.
Women also tend to see moral issues as a problem of conflicting responsibilities rather than competing rights so whilst women perceive the situation as more contextual and narrative men define the situation as more formal and abstract.
She calls the different moral approaches "Ethics of care" and "Ethics of justice" and recognizes them as fundamentally incompatible.
She based her conclusions on interviews, not statistical surveys, and never meant for her ideas to be set in stone. Since we expect women and men to think differently about ethics women and men as a result do present differences. The different modes of reasoning are therefore a socially constructed dichotomy simply reproducing itself through our expectations of how women and men act.Carol Gilligan is the author of the classic work "In a Different Voice" which challenged mainstream psychological theories of moral development that were based almost exclusively on male experience.
Plot Overview. The Scarlet Letter opens with a long preamble about how the book came to be written.
The nameless narrator was the surveyor of the customhouse in Salem, Massachusetts. In the customhouse’s attic, he discovered a number of documents, among them a manuscript that was bundled with a scarlet, gold-embroidered patch of cloth in the shape of an “A.”.
The Scarlet Letter can easily be seen as an early feminist piece of work. Nathaniel Hawthorne created a story that exemplifies Hester as a strong female character living with her choices, whether they were good or bad, and also as the protagonist.
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s sympathy for women is evident in a feminist reading of his novel More about Feminism in Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter Essay. Guilt and Shame in Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter Words | 5 Pages; Morality in Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter Essay.
Evidence of feminism in The Scarlet Letter appears in Chapter 13, Another View of Hester, and The Conclusion. Hester herself embodies all the qualities of 19th century feminism. Feminism And The Feminist Movement - This weeks readings explored the historical changes of throughout the feminist movement.
By looking at the history of the movement the current state of feminism become clearer.
Reading “The Scarlet Letter” through the Feminist lens entails examining the roles of women in society and their rights and opportunities in the novel. Feminism is the act of women knocking down barriers, changing laws, entering halls of power, and pointing out ways that females have been, and. Feminism And The Feminist Movement - This weeks readings explored the historical changes of throughout the feminist movement. By looking at the history of the movement the current state of feminism become clearer. The Scarlet Letter (Signet Classics) [Nathaniel Hawthorne, Brenda Wineapple, Regina Barreca] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This tragic novel of sin and redemption is Hawthorne's masterpiece of American fiction. An ardent young woman.