The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al. Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al. The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries.
In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy Frumkin, These economic, social, urban or rural, transportation, and other policies that affect the environment were not traditionally thought of as relevant to health policy but are now attracting greater attention because decision makers are beginning to recognize their health implications Cole and Fielding, By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces.
Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned.
These patterns are present across countries and across regions within countries, as well as at smaller scales, such as across urban neighborhoods Center on Human Needs, b ; Kawachi and Subramanian, Strong spatial variation is present for a large range of The effects of environmental factors on outcomes, including many of the outcomes for which there are cross-national health differences, such as noncommunicable diseases, associated risk factors, injuries, and violence.
Understanding the reasons for the spatial patterns of health within countries may shed light on environmental factors that may contribute to differences across countries. Several factors may explain the strong spatial patterns that are observed within countries.
A key contender is the spatial sorting of people based on their socioeconomic position, race, or ethnicity.
However, evidence suggests that regional and neighborhood differences in health persist even after adjusting for these socioeconomic and demographic factors Diez Roux and Mair, ; Mair et al. This evidence suggests that broad environmental factors may play an important role in health.
Moreover, environmental factors linked to space and place may in turn contribute to and reinforce socioeconomic and racial or ethnic health disparities Bleich et al. Thus, individual and environmental factors may be part of a reinforcing cycle that creates and perpetuates health differences. These reinforcing processes by which environmental factors and individual- family- and community-level factors reinforce each other over time may also play an important role in generating cross-national differences in health.
This chapter focuses on both the physical and social environment in the United States as potential contributors to its health disadvantage relative to other high-income countries. This chapter, like others before it, focuses on three questions: Do environmental factors matter to health?
Are environmental factors worse in the United States than in other high-income countries? Do environmental factors explain the U.
The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al.
Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al. The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries.
For example, a recent review of studies from the late s to mids found a consistent inverse relationship between airborne particulate matter and birth weight in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States Parker et al.
Another notable example is the evidence linking lead exposures to cognitive development in children Bellinger, ; Levin et al. The evidence of environmental effects of air pollution and lead has been reflected in legislation in many countries directed at reducing levels of these pollutants in the environment.
Increasing attention has focused on the implications for health behaviors and social interactions that are created by the built environment. The built environment refers to the presence of and proximity to health-relevant resources as well as to aspects of the ways in which neighborhoods are designed and built including land use patterns, transportation systems, and urban planning and design features.
An important example is evidence that links proximity to healthy or unhealthy food stores with dietary behaviors and related chronic disease outcomes Babey et al. Another large body of work has documented how walking and physical activity levels are affected by access to recreational facilities, land use mix, transportation systems, and urban planning and design Auchinloss et al.Assess the effects of economic instability on social, political and/or environmental factors as well as some of the solutions that have been employed to overcome them.
Today’s most urgent problem is the global financial crisis, which broke out in , its impact and its negative consequences(Karimov, ). Environmental factors refer to external influences on a business that it has limited control over but that it must consider as part of strategic planning.
Typically, environmental factors. Environmental issues can be seen by long term ecological effects, some of which can demolish whole environments.
An environment is a unique unit and incorporates all the living and non-living components that live inside it. Plants and creatures are evident parts of the environment, but it also includes the things on which they depend on, for example, streams, lakes, and soils.
Examples of environmental factors include soil, water, climate, natural vegetation and landforms. Environmental factors entail everything that changes the environment.
Some factors are visible, while others cannot be seen. In some situations, only the effects of environmental changes are evident. The Impact of Environmental Factors, Body Weight & Exercise on Fertility RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, through a generous grant from the Collaborative on Some of these impacts are well established (confirmed by other studies), some less so.
The focus of this article is to analyse how environmental factors affect the value of properties.
The quality of the environment largely affects the decisions made on the real estate market. This factor influences property value, and its social popularity generates economic benefits.