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He was in turn a canon-lawyer and a scholastic, a philosopher and a sceptic, a mystic and a theologian, a traditionist and a moralist. His —position as a theologian of Islam is undoubtedly the most eminent. Through a living synthesis of his creative and energetic personality, he revitalized Muslim theology and reorientated its values and attitudes.
His combination of spiritualization and fundamentalism in Islam had such a marked stamp of his powerful personality that it has continued to be accepted by the community since his time.
His outlook on philosophy is characterized by a remarkable originality which, however, is more critical than constructive.
In his works on philosophy one is struck by a keen philosophical acumen and penetration with which he gives a clear and readable exposition of the views of the philosophers, the subtlety and analyticity with which he criticizes them, and the candour and open-mindedness with which he accepts them whenever he finds them to be true.
The champions of the modern movement of religious empiricism, on the one hand, and that of logical positivism, on the other, paradoxical though it may seem, would equally find comfort in his works.
The teachings of this remarkable figure of Islam pertaining either to religion or philosophy, either constructive or critical, cannot, however, be fully understood without knowing the story of his life with some measure of detail, for, in his case, life and thought were one: Whatever he thought and wrote came with the living reality of his own experience.
But he was early exposed to Sufistic influences. After his return from Jurjan he stayed for a while in Tas and possibly during this period studied Sufism under Ynsuf al-Nassaj and perhaps even undertook some of the Sufistic exercises.
The curriculum of the Academy included a wide range of subjects such as theology, canon-law, philosophy, logic, dialectics, natural sciences, Sufism, etc. Imam al-Haramain allowed full freedom of thought and expression to his pupils; they were encouraged to engage in debates and discussions of all kinds.
Not long afterwaidil he began to lecture to his fellow-students and to write books. It was verily during his studentship at the Nizamiyyah Academy of Nishapur that he became impatient of dogmatic teaching and freed himself from the bondage of authority taqlid and even showed the signs of scepticism.
He even practised rigorous ascetic and Sufistic exercises under his guidance but not to the desired effect. He betook himself to the Court of Nizam al-Mulk, the great vizier of the Saljnq sovereign Malikshah r.
Nizam al-Mulk by his munificent patronage of scholarship, science, and arts had gathered round him a brilliant galaxy of savants and learned men. He was then only thirty-four.
This was most coveted of all the honours in the then Muslim world and one which had not previously been conferred on anyone at so early an age. His advice began to be sought in matters religious and political, and he came to wield influence comparable to that of the highest officials of the State.
Apparently, he attained to all the glory that a scholar could by way of worldly success, but inwardly he began to undergo an intellectual and spiritual crisis. He keenly felt the hollowness of the meticulous spinning of casuistry of the canon-lawyers. He denounced their over-emphasis on the doctrinal, for it led to a faulty representation of religion by reducing it to a mere mould of orthodoxy and catechism of dogmas.
The disputes of the scholastics amongst themselves he considered as mere dialectical logomachies which had no real relation with religious life.A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time. ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence.
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A History of Muslim Philosophy Part 4. The Middle-Roaders Chapter XXX AL-GHAZ ĀLĪTable of Contents: Metaphysics.
Life. Method. Attack on the Philosophers. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.