Leben[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Robert K. Merton wurde am 4. Merton studierte ab an der Temple University bei George E. Ab war er Forschungsassistent bei Pitrim A.
This imbalance, in which some individuals particularly those of the lower- and lower-middle social classes are disadvantaged and have few prospects of reaching goals, produces a strain Gomme, As a result, such individuals are under considerable strain, to which they adapt in any one of five possible ways Gomme, The first, and most common, reaction to anomie is conformity.
Most people are conformists.
Conformists accept both the culturally-defined goals, and the societally-restriced means of achieving such goals, as legitimate. They strive for success through the socially-acceptable avenues of educational and occupational advancement. The second possible reaction to anomie is that of innovation.
Innovators are people who continue to embrace monetary and material success as a worthy goal Lilly et al. A similar example would be a drug dealer, who — like most conformists — desires wealth and social status, yet who attempts to achieve such ambitions through illegal activity Lilly et al.
Innovators, however, are not necessarily violent or serious offenders: Ritualists alleviate the strain of anomie by lessening their own aspirations of success to a point where goals are more practically attainable Gomme, Ritualists tend to avoid taking risks such as law violationand are comfortable living within the confines of daily routines Lilly et al.
A telemarketer or agent in a customer service department, for example, may demonstrate a ritualistic response. While accepting that personal wealth and social prestige are unlikely life outcomes, he or she will behave conventionally and acceptably by working hard; it is likely, however, that he or she will revise goals to be better aligned with practical possibilities for example, by aiming to make the most commission, or be promoted to a supervisory role.
Similarly, bureaucrats and administrators who work in large institutions e. As they outwardly maintain conformity to socio-cultural norms and do not violate the law, ritualists are not seen as a threat to the social or organizational structure Gomme, The fourth adaptation reaction — possibly the most discouraging — is retreatism.
Retreatists make a more dramatic response to the stress of anomie. A homeless person and an individual who withdraws from the educational system can also be said to exhibit retreatist reactions by relinquishing the desire to attain culturally-defined goals as well and by retreating from activities means to pursue such ends.
The fifth type of adaptation to anomie outlined by Merton is rebellion. Alienated from social and cultural structures, rebels propose new goals and means for success Lilly et al. Contemporary Marxists and socialists, for example, who advocate group rather than individual success, and who desire equal distribution of wealth, are threats to prevalent capitalist doctrine, and would be classified as rebels.Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon.
Criminological research areas in particular comprise the incidence and forms of crime as well as its causes and consequences. They also include social and governmental regulations and reactions to crime. This dissertation will examine and explore the issues of why young people join street gangs.
Research has been undertaken on gangs and my dissertation looks at a range of concepts and theories relating to street gangs and young people. Therefore I will be discussing different theoretical explanations about young people and street gangs.
Strain Theory. Strain theory is a sociology and criminology theory developed in by Robert K. Merton. The theory states that society puts pressure on individuals to achieve socially accepted goals (such as the American dream), though they lack the means. This dissertation will examine and explore the issues of why young people join street gangs. Research has been undertaken on gangs and my dissertation looks at a range of concepts and theories relating to street gangs and young people. Therefore I will be discussing different theoretical explanations about young people and street gangs. Strain Theory was first developed by Robert Merton in the s to explain the rising crime rates experienced in the USA at that time. Strain theory has become popular with Contemporary sociologists.
Alienation: Alienation, in social sciences, the state of feeling estranged or separated from one’s milieu, work, products of work, or self.
Despite its popularity in the analysis of contemporary life, the idea of alienation remains an ambiguous concept with elusive meanings, the following variants being most. Theories.
The sociology of deviance involves a number of theorems that seek accurately to describe trends and patterns discernible in the study of social deviance, the better to understand social behaviour.
Leben. Robert K.
Merton wurde am 4. Juli in Philadelphia als Meyer Robert Schkolnick in eine Familie Jiddisch-sprechender russischer Juden, die in die U.S.A. auswanderten, geboren. Anomie. The concept of anomie refers to a condition or state in which there is a breakdown of social norms and guidance for the citizens of society.
Anomie occurs when society has little influence.