The procedure As a part of your paper publication, you can start documenting the 'existing techniques' from the scrap journal you did during the studies. Here you have to extract what all are the techniques existing as a solution for the particular problem and the pros and cons of those. Next, document the 'introduction' about what is the topic and what you are going to do.
Who is this sign for? Where would you find it? What helped you to decide? In this case the knowledge of words such as take, bathroom, towels and beach was not enough — there is something more involved in the comprehension of this short message.
So by a process of gradual approximation you come to think of hotels, and call in your knowledge of the socio-cultural conventions associated with hotels, beaches and hotel customers.
Of course, because the sign is not placed in its proper context, the surface meaning of the words is not enough to make comprehension possible in an automatic way - you had recourse to a strategy.
Notice that you used this strategy unconsciously, although, if asked how you went about it, you could describe your steps in the process, as I have just done. To argue that strategies are important as bridges in the curriculum, I Preliminary outlines research papers use a metaphor: Above the surface of this iceberg we have competence and performance - this refers to the question: What can you do, and to what extent can you show me that you can do it?
But below the surface is your learning process. This refers to the question: How do you come to be able to do it? It is exactly here, halfway between competence the "what" and process the "how" that I put in learning strategies - to support and help you make the most of your learning process.
If you think back to the sign about bathroom towels, you will realize that for a fraction of a second the sign did not make sense to you.
However, because you are good strategy users, you immediately recognised that you needed something else: Notice that when we consider strategies in the curriculum we are only still very much near the surface of the curriculum iceberg.
Deeper below, we come to the question: Why can I do something just in that particular way I do it? This clearly makes a constraint on the range of strategies that come most familiar to people.
For example, there are people who like and are good at using inference, but there are other people who find inference a difficult and even painful process.
As we move even deeper down the iceberg, we come to the very basic questions: What do a foreign language and a foreign culture look like to me? What does learning a language mean to me? And what role can I play in it, what role should my teacher play?
Do I think I can learn a language? Do I want to learn a language? Here we are concerned with very basic beliefs and values, attitudes and motivations 2.
Again, notice how these issues feed back to the upper layers in the iceberg. Suppose that a student believes that reading is a passive process, in which all you have to do is let the text flow from the page into your mind.
We could urge this student to use a variety of inference and association strategies, but she would probably put up some resistance to them and might even think that we were not doing our job as teachers because we are not giving her the necessary information.
So strategies are placed in a strategic position in the curriculum, but they cannot be divorced from the total context, which sets heavy constraints on their use. This is what we mean when we say, in rather technical terms, that strategies promote the restructuring of causal attributions: They can start thinking in a more positive way, they can start thinking that success can be in their hands if they make an effort and use the right strategies.
In this way they are also increasing their sense of self-efficacy, self-confidence, and expectations of success — they are empowering themselves. It is as if they said to themselves: I can try harder, play better and maybe win".The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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