The aim of a political party is to elect officials who will try to carry out the party's policies.
Political factions[ edit ] Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Polotical parties Athensand the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman RepublicPolybius coined the term ochlocracy literally, rule of the mob to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, and the poet Juvenal coined the phrase " bread and circuses " to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy.
The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold ever grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople.
The first modern political factions, however, can be said to have originated Polotical parties early modern Britain. The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England.
As the century wore on, the factions slowly began to adopt more coherent political Polotical parties as the interests of their power bases began to diverge. The Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants.
As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty,  and believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke and the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. They acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals.
At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government; however, the ideological gap between the Tories and the Opposition Whigs prevented them from coalescing as a single party.
Emergence[ edit ] When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct " Grenvillite ", " Bedfordite ", " Rockinghamite ", and " Chathamite " factions successively in power, and all referring to themselves as "Whigs".
Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged. The first such party was the Rockingham Whigs  under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke. Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed".
As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were often tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. George III is the blockhead in the centre.
A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of Shelburnetook power inonly to collapse after Rockingham's death. The new government, led by the radical politician Charles James Fox in coalition with Lord Northwas soon brought down and replaced by William Pitt the Younger in It was now that a genuine two-party system began to emerge, with Pitt leading the new Tories against a reconstituted "Whig" party led by Fox.
As Wilson and Reill note, "Adam Smith's theory melded nicely with the liberal political stance of the Whig Party and its middle-class constituents. In the late s disputes over political reform broke up this grouping.
From the beginning, American political parties have had a tarnished reputation. In his Farewell Address to the nation, George Washington warned against "the baneful effects of the spirit of party" as inciting American citizens "with ill-founded jealousies.". Today many Americans take pride in their status as "independent voters," partly . Political party: Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The. Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties.
A government led by the Duke of Wellington collapsed amidst dire election results. Following this disaster Robert Peel set about assembling a new coalition of forces. Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto in which set out the basic principles of Conservatism — the necessity in specific cases of reform in order to survive, but an opposition to unnecessary change, that could lead to "a perpetual vortex of agitation".
Meanwhile, the Whigs, along with free trade Tory followers of Robert Peeland independent Radicalsformed the Liberal Party under Lord Palmerston inand transformed into a party of the growing urban middle-class, under the long leadership of William Ewart Gladstone.
In United States[ edit ] Main article: Political parties in the United States Although the framers of the United States Constitution did not anticipate that American political discourse would become partisan, political controversies in the early s over the extent of federal government powers saw the emergence of two proto-political parties: Two major parties would dominate the political landscape for the next quarter-century: When the Whig Party fell apart in the mids, its position as a major U.
Charles Stewart Parnellleader of the Irish Parliamentary Party The second half of the 19th century saw the adoption of the party model of politics across Europe. In Germany, France, Austria and elsewhere, the Revolutions sparked a wave of liberal sentiment and the formation of representative bodies and political parties.
The end of the century saw the formation of large socialist parties in Europe, some conforming to the teaching of Karl Marxothers adapting social democracy through the use of reformist and gradualist methods.The parties may only raise "hard money," which is given by individuals and political action committees and is subject to federal contribution limits.
Until November , the parties also could raise unlimited "soft money" from corporations, labor .
English Political Parties In , a rumor spread through England that Roman Catholics were plotting to kill King Charles II and give the throne to Charles' brother, James, Duke of York (who was a .
Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties.
41 rows · Major political parties. Per Merriam-Webster, a major party has "electoral .
Political party: Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties.
The. 40 rows · Major political parties. Per Merriam-Webster, a major party has "electoral strength sufficient .