View down from the top of Rio de Janeiro Rocinha favela, Brazil.
Etymology[ edit ] Women voter outreach from The book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the midth century as "Polettiques";  it became "politics" in Modern English.
Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. State polity The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare.
Politics power and democracy in relation speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the " divine right of kings ". Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as BC in Sumeria  to the 21st century AD British Monarchy.
Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy. The king often, even in absolute monarchiesruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power.
As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full.
Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers.
Forms of political organization[ edit ] There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations NGOs and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are perhaps the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power.
According to Aristotle, states are classified into monarchiesaristocraciestimocraciesdemocraciesoligarchiesand tyrannies. Due to changes across the history of politics, this classification has been abandoned.
All states are varieties of a single organizational form, the sovereign state. All the great powers of the modern world rule on the principle of sovereignty. Sovereign power may be vested on an individual as in an autocratic government or it may be vested on a group as in a constitutional government.
Constitutions are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches of government. Although a constitution is a written document, there is also an unwritten constitution. The unwritten constitution is continually being written by the legislative branch of government; this is just one of those cases in which the nature of the circumstances determines the form of government that is most appropriate.
England did set the fashion of written constitutions during the Civil War but after the Restoration abandoned them to be taken up later by the American Colonies after their emancipation and then France after the Revolution and the rest of Europe including the European colonies.
One form is a strong central government as in France and China. Another form is local government, such as the ancient divisions in England that are comparatively weaker but less bureaucratic. These two forms helped to shape the practice of federal governmentfirst in Switzerland, then in the United States inin Canada in and in Germany in and inAustralia.
Federal states introduced the new principle of agreement or contract. Compared to a federationa confederation has a more dispersed system of judicial power. Dicey in An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, the essential features of a federal constitution are: Global politics Global politics include different practices of political globalization in relation to questions of social power: The 20th century witnessed the outcome of two world wars and not only the rise and fall of the Third Reich but also the rise and relative fall of communism.
Later, the hydrogen bomb became the ultimate weapon of mass destruction. Global politics also concerns the rise of global and international organizations. The United Nations has served as a forum for peace in a world threatened by nuclear war, "The invention of nuclear and space weapons has made war unacceptable as an instrument for achieving political ends.
According to political science professor Paul Jamesglobal politics is affected by values: Cosmopolitanism can be defined as a global politics that, firstly, projects a sociality of common political engagement among all human beings across the globe, and, secondly, suggests that this sociality should be either ethically or organizationally privileged over other forms of sociality.The political equality of all citizens is an essential principle of democracy.
In a democracy, the just powers of government are based upon the consent of the governed. Free elections and other forms of civic participation are essential to democracy. May 26, · The relationship between equality and democracy in Aristotle’s Politics and in Tocqueville’s Democracy in America Posted on May 26, by Dan Barbulescu Prompt: Analyze the relationship between equality and democracy in Aristotle’s Politics and in Tocqueville’s Democracy .
Chapter 1 – Democracy and American Politics I) Democracy – demos (the people) & kratein (to rule) a. Oligarchy – rule by a few and a minority group holds power over a majority as in an aristocracy or a clerical establishment b. The people hold political power in a democracy.
The system lets people choose their leaders through a competitive process and hold them accountable for their policies and conduct in public office. The people elect their representatives in law-making organs of the government, and those who lead them.
Politics (from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group. It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state..
In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their caninariojana.comtions: Sanrakshan. Effective democracy requires democratic control of all social power, not merely government power.
Because government has the power to determine the rules governing the distribution of social power, democratic government institutions have historically - and rightly - been considered the keystone in the structure of democratic society.