The aim is to apply principles and concepts from a variety of social science disciplines e. Topics include how technology changes relationships, the cumulative advantages and disadvantages associated with technology, digital natives versus digital immigrants, the pace of technological change, changes to the nature of how people learn and think, and the meaning of technology in society.
Terrestrial microwaves are in the low gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals. Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies.
The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.
Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications.
In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices. Exotic technologies[ edit ] There have been various attempts at transporting data over exotic media: It was implemented in real life in Node networking Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers NICsrepeatershubsbridgesswitchesroutersmodemsand firewalls.
Any particular piece of equipment will frequently contain multiple building blocks and perform multiple functions. Network interfaces[ edit ] An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A network interface controller NIC is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry.
In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control MAC address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six octets. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers.
These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce. Repeaters and hubs[ edit ] A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signalcleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it.
The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than meters.
With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart.Commitment of Housing Authority or Owner: If you are approved for housing, this information will be kept as part of your tenant file. If issues arise during your tenancy or if you require any services or special care, we may contact the person or organization you listed to assist in resolving the issues or in providing any services or special care to you.
Behrooz Parhami's Research Program. Page last updated on September 27 Professor Parhami has been involved in computer science and engineering research for four decades.
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