Alamy Evidence is emerging of an increase in racist incidents in the wake of the Brexit vote. There have been more than reports of racist incidents since Fridaycausing alarm about increasing racial, religious and ethnic tensions. In particular, there have been instances of Muslims targeted in racist acts across Wales and in Birmingham.
The different identity of an ethnic minority may be displayed in any number of ways, ranging from distinctive customs, lifestyles, language or accent, dress, and food preferences to particular attitudes, moral values, and economic or political beliefs espoused by members of the group.
Characteristically the minority is recognized, but it is not necessarily accepted by the larger society in which its members live.
The nature of the relationship of the ethnic minority to the larger society will tend to determine whether the minority group will move in the direction of assimilation in the larger society or toward self-segregation.
In some cases ethnic minorities have been simply excluded by the majority, a striking example being African Americans in the American South during the lateth and 20th centuries.
Ethnicity and the Melting Pot Different countries have different combinations of minorities within their borders. Some countries are relatively homogeneous, and the defining characteristics of nationality in their populations appear to apply to almost all members.
In Japan, for example, the ethnic majority, as measured by the government, embraces some 99 percent of the population; Koreans, the only measurable minority, make up less than half a percent. As a result, the Japanese have had very little experience with accommodating other ethnic groups and have frequently been charged, whether fairly or not, with cultural elitism.
At the other extreme, in the United States, nationality is quite widely assumed to be hyphenated. Even the aboriginal population is identified as "native American" to distinguish it from Anglo-American, African American, and so on. The United States, accordingly, is perceived throughout the world as a successful experiment in ethnic mixing, the preeminent melting pot to many.
Another, strikingly successful example of a multiethnic country is Switzerland, where French- German- and Italian-speakers divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant adherents live and work in exceptional harmony and prosperity.
Ethnic diversity in the Swiss case appears to have had a stimulating effect rather than a divisive one. Studies of structural conditions in Switzerland suggest that harmony may coexist with diversity where important characteristics are shared.
There, at least, linguistic and sectarian differences have proved in recent centuries to be subordinate to the condition of being Swiss—and perhaps also European. Although not a melting pot, like the United States, Switzerland is a model of ethnic toleration.
Patterns of Settlement Shifting political and religious lines, altered economic conditions, and natural disasters have created more immigrants than have the sum total of human wanderlust and fortune hunting. The first waves of settlement in colonial North America, for example, arose in many cases from religious persecutions in Great Britain and the continent of Europe.
They were followed by Scots-Irish peasants impoverished by the enclosure of common lands at the turn of the next century. Roman Catholics suffering from a variety of legal disabilities in 18th-century England and Scotland settled parts of Maryland, while Scandinavian farmers in the earlyth century sought an adequate growing season in the northern Middle West.
A potato blight and consequent famine in the midth century forced millions of rural Irish into involuntary exile in the urban slums of an industrializing United States.
At the same time that the Puritans were settling parts of New England the proprietors of royal land grants in the mid-Atlantic and southern colonies were underwriting the transportation of white European indentured servants to work their land.
When these eventually earned their freedom, the planter aristocracy found a cheaper and more permanent substitute kidnapped and enslaved Africans sold as chattel whose children and later progeny likewise became personal property.
The demands of industrialization and a corresponding need for a large pool of cheap labor acted as a magnet attracting a flood of immigration from southern and eastern Europe, to replace the upwardly mobile Irish-Americans, at the turn of the 20th century.
Railroad building in the American West pulled in a wave of Chinese coolie labor. Other groups arrived for a variety of reasons, but the main social characteristic of the American experiment, its multiethnic mix, never changed.
As new ethnic groups arrived earlier ones were absorbed into the predominantly white population of mostly European extraction.
Usually this took place in a generation or two, in some cases longer. But multiethnicity was the rule and the melting pot — assimilation of ethnic minorities into the ever-changing majority — the ideal.
Minority Identity and Assimilation An unfortunate secondary characteristic of ethnic minority status is that it is often accompanied by prejudice and discrimination. Ethnic minorities tend to be at a disadvantage in most situations, most often because they are stigmatized as different from the norm.
Religion and, most significantly, skin color are more apt than almost anything else to provoke prejudice, and the resistance to assimilation encountered by persons of different skin color is pronounced and long-lasting.
In the United States the greatest hostility toward ethnic minorities repeatedly has come from those Americans most threatened by the newcomers. At times those threatened have included a majority of working men and women, and the government has usually responded by enacting harsh and restrictive immigration laws or quotas.
Hence, immigration has tended to occur in waves — most pronounced in the midth century and early- and lateth century, when the demand for labor was most urgent and jobs most plentiful. The rate of assimilation of these new arrivals has generally depended on several factors, some positive, some not.
In addition, older people are apt to be less assimilable than young, and men generally less so than women.Ethnic minorities Into the melting pot. The rapid rise of mixed-race Britain is changing neighbourhoods—and perplexing the authorities.
Once an oasis town on the ancient Silk Road, Kashgar is the cultural heart of the Uighur community. On a sleepy tree-lined street in the northern part of the city, among noodle shops and bakeries, stands an imposing compound surrounded by high concrete walls topped with loops of barbed wire.
Historically, British people were therefore thought to be descended mainly from the different ethnic stocks that settled there before the 11th century: pre-Celtic, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman. Religion in Britain. . Ethnic Minorities in Britain Introduction (Mis)labelling identity signifiers bespeaks underlying histories of power structure(s).
Indeed, however a case is made based on political, social, economic, cultural and ethnic grounds, an identity signifier remains central to sustain, if not to justify, existing power structures. News > UK > Home News Racial inequality in UK: The appalling reality of how a Briton's ethnicity affects their chances of a good life.
Black, Asian and minority ethnic people are twice as likely. The proportion of UK citizens from ethnic minority communities is expected to double in the next decades and will be between 20 and 30 percent by , “radically changing the face of Britain,” a new report says.
The authors of the study took the UK’s five largest distinct ethnic groups as an.