Nmedia The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage and that to be effective, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization. Managers have always asked questions such as "What is the right thing to do? Should we have a mechanistic or an organic structure? A functional or divisional structure?
Nmedia The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage Contigency approach that to be effective, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization.
Managers have always asked questions such as "What is the right thing to do? Should we have a mechanistic or an organic structure? A functional or divisional structure? Wide or narrow spans of management? Tall or flat organizational structures? Simple or complex control and coordination mechanisms?
Should we be centralized or decentralized?
Should we use task Contigency approach people oriented leadership styles? What motivational approaches and incentive programs should we use?
Thus, the right thing to do depends on a complex variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies. However, the classicists came under fire in the s and s from management thinkers who believed that their approach was inflexible and did not consider environmental contingencies.
Although the criticisms were largely invalid both Fayol and Taylor, for example, recognized that situational factors were relevantthey spawned what has come to be called the contingency school of management. Research conducted in the s and s focused on situational factors that affected the appropriate structure of organizations and the appropriate leadership styles for different situations.
Although the contingency perspective purports to apply to all aspects of management, and not just organizing and leading, there has been little development of contingency approaches outside organization theory and leadership theory.
The following sections provide brief overviews of the contingency perspective as relevant to organization theory and leadership.
According to the contingency perspective, stable environments suggest mechanistic structures that emphasize centralization, formalization, standardization, and specialization to achieve efficiency and consistency. Certainty and predictability permit the use of policies, rules, and procedures to guide decision making for routine tasks and problems.
Unstable environments suggest organic structures which emphasize decentralization to achieve flexibility and adaptability. Uncertainty and unpredictability require general problem solving methods for nonroutine tasks and problems.
Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch suggest that organizational units operating in differing environments develop different internal unit characteristics, and that the greater the internal differences, the greater the need for coordination between units.
Joan Woodward found that financially successful manufacturing organizations with different types of work technologies such as unit or small batch; large-batch or mass-production; or continuous-process differed in the number of management levels, span of management, and the degree of worker specialization.
She linked differences in organization to firm performance and suggested that certain organizational forms were appropriate for certain types of work technologies.
Organizational size is another contingency variable thought to impact the effectiveness of different organizational forms. Small organizations can behave informally while larger organizations tend to become more formalized.
The owner of a small organization may directly control most things, but large organizations require more complex and indirect control mechanisms.Comment by Slapperfish A-Me 02 is a tameable* mechanical gorilla, and is an improvement on A-Me 01's design.
She is located at the back of the cave at Fungal Rock in Un'Goro caninariojana.com current level scales to your own (minimum level required to tame her is 55), making her a challenging tame at all levels. Start studying CPEREZJP Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Association of International NGOs in Nepal/AIN C/O Save the Children Airport Gate Area Sambhu Marga. The contingency approach to management holds that management techniques should be dependent upon the circumstances. In this lesson, you will learn. Contingency approach, also known as situational approach, is a concept in management stating that there is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) to manage organizations.
Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing.
Contingency. Contingency approach in business uses theories created by Fred Fielder to adjsut natural leadership styles based on situations and needs. .