Chemistry Tutorial by University of Arizona Review the basics of chemistry you'll need to know to study biology. Large Molecules by University of Arizona Learn about structures and properties of sugars, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as well as macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. Clinical Correlates of pH Levels by University of Arizona Learn how metabolic acidosis or alkalosis can arise and how these conditions shift the bicarbonate equilibrium.
Structure of cytosine with and without the 5-methyl group. Deamination converts 5-methylcytosine into thymine. Base modifications and DNA packaging Further information: DNA methylation and Chromatin remodeling The expression of genes is influenced by how the DNA is packaged in chromosomes, in a structure called chromatin.
Base modifications can be involved in packaging, with regions that have low or no gene expression usually containing high levels of methylation of cytosine bases.
DNA packaging and its influence on gene expression can also occur by covalent modifications of the histone protein core around Acids and bases study guide DNA is wrapped in the chromatin structure or else by remodeling carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes see Chromatin remodeling.
There is, further, crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification, so they can coordinately affect chromatin and gene expression.
Mutagens include oxidizing agentsalkylating agents and also high-energy electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light and X-rays. The type of DNA damage produced depends on the type of mutagen.
For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine dimerswhich are cross-links between pyrimidine bases. Because of inherent limits in the DNA repair mechanisms, if humans lived long enough, they would all eventually develop cancer.
Although most of these damages are repaired, in any cell some DNA damage may remain despite the action of repair processes. These remaining DNA damages accumulate with age in mammalian postmitotic tissues. This accumulation appears to be an important underlying cause of aging.
Most intercalators are aromatic and planar molecules; examples include ethidium bromideacridinesdaunomycinand doxorubicin. For an intercalator to fit between base pairs, the bases must separate, distorting the DNA strands by unwinding of the double helix.
This inhibits both transcription and DNA replication, causing toxicity and mutations. The set of chromosomes in a cell makes up its genome ; the human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes.
Transmission of genetic information in genes is achieved via complementary base pairing. Usually, this RNA copy is then used to make a matching protein sequence in a process called translationwhich depends on the same interaction between RNA nucleotides.
In alternative fashion, a cell may simply copy its genetic information in a process called DNA replication. The details of these functions are covered in other articles; here the focus is on the interactions between DNA and other molecules that mediate the function of the genome.
Genes and genomes Further information: In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the cell nucleuswith small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is held within an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid. A gene is a unit of heredity and is a region of DNA that influences a particular characteristic in an organism.
Genes contain an open reading frame that can be transcribed, and regulatory sequences such as promoters and enhancerswhich control transcription of the open reading frame. In many speciesonly a small fraction of the total sequence of the genome encodes protein.
For example, only about 1. Telomeres and centromeres typically contain few genes but are important for the function and stability of chromosomes. Genetic codeTranscription geneticsand Protein biosynthesis A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains genetic information and can influence the phenotype of an organism.
Within a gene, the sequence of bases along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which then defines one or more protein sequences. The relationship between the nucleotide sequences of genes and the amino-acid sequences of proteins is determined by the rules of translationknown collectively as the genetic code.
The genetic code consists of three-letter 'words' called codons formed from a sequence of three nucleotides e. These encode the twenty standard amino acidsgiving most amino acids more than one possible codon. The double helix is unwound by a helicase and topoisomerase. Next, one DNA polymerase produces the leading strand copy.
Another DNA polymerase binds to the lagging strand. This enzyme makes discontinuous segments called Okazaki fragments before DNA ligase joins them together. DNA replication Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that the two daughter cells have the same genetic information as their parent.
Here, the two strands are separated and then each strand's complementary DNA sequence is recreated by an enzyme called DNA polymerase.
This enzyme makes the complementary strand by finding the correct base through complementary base pairing and bonding it onto the original strand.
It may act as a recognition factor to regulate the attachment and dispersal of specific cell types in the biofilm;  it may contribute to biofilm formation;  and it may contribute to the biofilm's physical strength and resistance to biological stress.
These protein interactions can be non-specific, or the protein can bind specifically to a single DNA sequence. DNA-binding proteins Further information:C-reactive protein (CRP) a protein that is produced in the liver in response to caninariojana.com is a biomarker of inflammation that is strongly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke.
Calcification the process of deposition of calcium salts. In the formation of bone this is a normal condition. A nucleotide is composed of three distinctive chemical sub-units: a five-carbon sugar molecule, a nitrogenous base—which two together are called a nucleoside—and one phosphate caninariojana.com all three joined, a nucleotide is also termed a "nucleoside monophosphate".The chemistry sources ACS Style Guide and IUPAC Gold Book prescribe that a nucleotide should contain only one phosphate group, .
GTT TAC TAC TCT TCT TCT TTA. The number of each type of amino acid coded for by this sequence of DNA bases is shown in the table below. AMINO ACID NUMBER OF AMINO. 1.
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Acids and bases are very useful in our daily caninariojana.com’s start with acids. Without acids, we won’t have Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), your car won’t start (sulphuric acid in car batteries) or even accelerated rotting of your food (food preservative in the form of citric acid).
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